Роман ShaRP (roman_sharp) wrote,
Роман ShaRP

И про "национальную гвардию"


Тонтон-макуты (Tonton Macoutes) — гаитянская гвардия (добровольцы национальной безопасности — Milice de Volontaires de la Sécurité Nationale, название с 1971 г.), служившая опорой режима Франсуа Дювалье.

После того, как в 1958 году против Дювалье выступили заговорщики, имевшие поддержку в частях гаитянской армии, в 1959 году Дювалье создал дополнительное военизированное формирование - "тонтон-макутов", которые не подчинялись армейскому командованию и выполняли функции полиции и органов безопасности.

Тонтон-макуты нередко использовали жестокие и мучительные виды убийств: они забрасывали жертв камнями или сжигали их заживо, при этом тела убитых выставлялись напоказ для устрашения. Их жертвами были реальные или потенциальные сторонники оппозиции Дювалье, а также бизнесмены, которые отказывались жертвовать средства на государственные проекты (служившие источником обогащения коррумпированных чиновников).

In English:

A Tonton Macoute was a member of the Haitian paramilitary force created in 1959 by dictator François 'Papa Doc' Duvalier. In 1970, the militia was officially renamed the Milice de Volontaires de la Sécurité Nationale (Militia of National Security Volunteers or MVSN, probably taking name from the homonymous Italian Fascist paramilitary organization).

Duvalier authorized the Tontons Macoutes to commit systematic violence and human rights abuses toward his ends; they were responsible for unknown numbers of murders and rapes in Haiti. Duvalier employed the Tonton Macoute in a reign of terror against any opponents, including those who proposed progressive social systems.[1] Those who spoke out against Duvalier would disappear at night, or were sometimes attacked in broad daylight. Tontons Macoutes often stoned and burned people alive. Many times the corpses were put on display, often hung in trees for everyone to see. Family members who tried to remove the bodies for proper burial often disappeared themselves, never to be seen again. They were believed to have been abducted and killed by the MVSN, who were called the "Tontons Macoutes" as a result. Anyone who challenged the MVSN risked assassination. Their unrestrained state terrorism was accompanied by corruption, extortion and personal aggrandizement among the leadership. The victims of Tontons Macoutes could range from a woman in the poorest of neighborhoods who had previously supported an opposing politician to a businessman who refused to “donate” money for public works (which were the source of profit for corrupt officials and even the dictator himself).

Казалось бы, при чём тут Украина, а?

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